A Network of Hope

Table of Contents
Primary Case Studies
General Public
Mental Health
Media Community

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In 2006, Ambassador (Ret.) Prudence Bushnell, Ambassador to Kenya at the time of the U.S. Embassy bombing in 1998, approached the Oklahoma City National Memorial with the challenge of developing a process that could assist communities in the wake of a massive disaster.

Although leaders are aware of the need to develop disaster plans, no one is really fully prepared in advance to meet the post-first responder needs of a community that has faced extensive destruction and trauma without being able to rely on outside assistance. Those communities that have experienced firsthand such destruction and trauma comprise a small group with special knowledge and understanding of what it takes to rebuild after such an incident. Knowing that Oklahoma City belonged to this group, the Ambassador suggested the community embark upon the task of helping other communities overcome similar destruction and trauma.

With this goal in mind, in April 2006, the Oklahoma City National Memorial brought together community members across a broad spectrum to participate in a two day Collective Reflection, thus launching A Network of Hope – A Resource to Help.

The initial goal was to create a catalog of best practices. Members of the business community, media, clergy, health and education shared their experiences in the wake of the Oklahoma City bombing and compiled a document to be used as a starting point for studying needs, reactions and best practices after a major traumatic incident.

During the balance of 2006 and early 2007, the Memorial staff invested hundreds of hours in studying the rebuilding process after other incidents, both man-made and natural disasters. In addition, we hosted a second Collective Reflection. The study included New York City after the World Trade Center terrorist attack, Hurricanes Hugo in Charleston (SC) and Andrew in Homestead (FL) and Miami (FL), earthquakes in Northridge (CA) and Kobe (Japan), floods in Des Moines (IA), and, finally, Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans (LA).

What has resulted is a collection of documents covering Municipality, Business, General Public, Non-Government Response Organizations, Faith Community, Media, and Memorializing, with some assistance for resources regarding Preparedness. During 2007, the materials were reviewed by cities and organizations in multiple states that had experienced disasters and the challenges of rebuilding and healing.

During the research, we learned that the concept of best practices may vary with the circumstances. Thus, we have identified some universals – needs that appear to hold true regardless of the circumstances of either the source of the incident or the magnitude. Beyond these universals, the value or need of the materials may depend on the type, magnitude and circumstance of the incident and community resources.

A Network of Hope – A Resource to Help will be updated as new information and resources are identified.

The Memorial extends its gratitude to everyone who has assisted in the development and review of this program. Participants in the Collective Reflections are listed below.

Ambassador (Ret.) Prudence Bushnell
U. S. Ambassador to Kenya at the time of the Embassy bombing
Oklahoma City National Memorial Foundation Trustee

Corey Black
Former General Services Administration
Former Oklahoma City National Memorial Foundation Trustee

JoeVan Bullard
Assistant City Manager, 1995
Executive Director, Oklahoma City Urban Renewal Authority

Don Bown
City Manager, Oklahoma City, 1995

Fran Cory
Assistant to the Oklahoma City Mayor in 1995

Dr. Stan Cosby
Former minister, First United Methodist Church, Oklahoma City

Talita DeNegri
Classroom teacher, 1995
Principal, Mount St. Mary High School

Gary Gardner
OG+E, retired

Dr. Gloria Griffin
Superintendent, Millwood Public Schools
Oklahoma City National Memorial Foundation Trustee

Dr. Robin Gurwitch
Professor, Pediatrics
OU Health Sciences Center

Joe Hight
Managing Editor, Features, Research & Development, The Oklahoman

Carrie Hulsey-Greene
KTOK Radio Reporter, 1995
Associate Director of Communications, Oklahoma State University

Reverend Wendy Lambert
Former Minister, St. Luke’s United Methodist Church

Frances Leonard
Family Member, sister of Secret Service Agent Don Leonard, killed in the bombing
Math Teacher, Sequoyah Middle School, Edmond, OK

Dave Lopez
Oklahoma President, SBC, 1995
President, American Fidelity Foundation
Oklahoma City National Memorial Foundation Trustee

Dr. Ellie Lottinville
Psychologist & Mental Health First Responder, 1995

Gary Marrs
Oklahoma City Fire Chief, 1995
City Council Member
Former Oklahoma City National Memorial Foundation Trustee

Debi Martin
Chief of Staff, Oklahoma City Council

Dr. Annette Murphy

Ron Norick
Oklahoma City Mayor, 1995

Cathy O’Connor
Assistant City Manager & Director of Finance, City of Oklahoma City

Amy Petty
Bombing Survivor, Federal Employees Credit Union (now Allegiance Credit Union)
Vice President, Allegiance Credit Union

Chaplain Jack Poe
Chaplain, Oklahoma City Police Department

Dennis Purifoy
Bombing Survivor, Social Security Administration

Steve Pusateri
KFOR News Channel 4 Photo Journalist

Cynthia Reid
Vice President, Marketing and Communications
Greater Oklahoma City Chamber of Commerce

Florence Rogers
Bombing Survivor, President, Federal Employees Credit Union, 1995

Sandra Rose
Counselor, Emerson Alternative School

Rosena Rucker
OU Child Studies Center

Dr. John Tassey
Director, Health Psychology Clinic, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Michael Thompson
Director of Corporate Communications, New Orleans Hornets

Terri Watkins
KOCO Channel 5, Reporter, 1995
Public Information Officer, Office of the State Auditor and Inspector

Richard Williams
Bombing Survivor, General Services Administration, 1995
Oklahoma City National Memorial Foundation Trustee

Brad Yarbrough

Oklahoma City National Memorial & Museum Staff
Kari Watkins, Executive Director
Lynne Roller, Deputy Director
Jane Thomas, Special Projects Consultant

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