Government Reports

FEMA 532, August 2005, Emergency Financial First Aid Kit

GAO-06-643, May 2006, Report to the Congressional Committees, “Hurricane Katrina: Better Plans and Exercises Needed to Guide the Military’s Response to Catastrophic Natural Disasters”

GAO-06-808T, May 25, 2006, Statement of the Record by Sharon Pickup, Director Defense Capabilities and Management, “Hurricane Katrina: Better Plans and Exercises Need to Guide the Military’s Response to Catastrophic Natural Disasters”

GAO-06-712, June 2006, Report to Congressional Committees, “Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Coordination between FEMA and the Red Cross Should Be Improved for the 2006 Hurricane Season”

GAO-06-944, July 2006, Report to Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives, “Child Welfare: Federal Action Needed to Ensure States Have Plans to Safeguard Children in the Child Welfare System Displaced by Disasters”

GAO-06-860, July 2006, Report to Congressional Addressees, “Small Business Administration: Actions Needed to Provide More Timely Disaster Assistance”

GAO-06-655, June 2006, Report to Congressional Committees, “Expedited Assistance for Victims of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: FEMA’s Control Weaknesses Exposed the Government to Significant Fraud and Abuse”

SAMHSA, 2006, Field Manual for Mental Health and Human Service Workers in Major Disasters

SAMHSA, 2006, Communicating in a Crisis: Risk Communication Guidelines for Public Officials

SAMHSA, 2005, A Guide to Managing Stress in Crisis Response Professions

SAMHSA, 2005, Psychosocial Issues for Older Adults in Disasters

SAMHSA, 2005, Psychosocial Issues for Children and Adolescents in Disasters

SAMHSA, 2005, Dealing with the Effects of Trauma: A Self-Help Guide

Other Reports

Aspen Institute: Communications and Society Program, “First Informers in the Disaster Zone: The Lessons of Katrina” May, Albert L., Rapporteur, 2006.

  • The conference (May 17 – 19, 2006) explored the role of communications media and the flow of information surrounding disasters.  The purpose was twofold:  to assist media leaders in learning how they can improve their ability to cope with disasters in the future and to bring together leaders of the media, affected communities and the homeland security apparatus to discuss how their relationships could be improved in anticipation of future disasters. 

Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program

  • “New Orleans After the Storm: Lessons from the Past, a Plan for the Future” (October 2004).
    Brophy, Paul C. and Vey, Jennifer S., “Seizing City Assets: Ten Steps to Urban Land Reform” (October 2002).
    Katz, Bruce and Muro, Mark, “To Shelter Katrina’s Victims, Learn from the Northridge Quake Zone”
    (September 12, 2005).
    Liu, Amy, “Building a Better New Orleans: A Review of and Plan for Progress One Year after Hurricane Katrina”
    (August 2006).

Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress (CSTS), “A Leadership Document to Inform Planning, Response and Policy for Workplace Preparedness and Behavioral risk Management of Disaster and Terrorism,” Conference Report, Bethesda, MD (June 29-30, 2006)

  • Workplace professionals in the public and private sector and renowned academicians and policy-makers in disaster mental health and disaster planning and response presented findings from disaster research, and firsthand accounts of corporations and federal agencies involved in 9/11, the anthrax attacks and Hurricanes Rita and Katrina.  Quotes from:

    Aguirre, B.E., Wenger, D., & Vigo, G., “A test of the emergent norm theory of collective behavior” Sociological Forum, 13, 301-320 (1998).

    Gershon, R.R.M., “The World Trade Center Evacuation Study: Lessons learned for other high rise office buildings” Paper presented Bethesda, MD (2006).

    Stith, Butler, A., Panzer, A.M., & Goldfrank, L.R., “Preparing for the Psychological Consequences of Terrorism” Washington, D.C., National Academies Press. (2003).

    Ursano, R.J., “Terrorism and mental health: Public health and primary care. Status Report: Meeting the Mental Health Needs of the Country in the Wake of September 11, 2001” Presented at the Eighteenth Annual Rosalynn Carter Symposium on Mental Health Policy, The Carter Center, Atlanta, GA. (2002).

Charleston, SC, Collection of reports and articles provided by the Charleston Metro Chamber of Commerce; includes the following articles, some original sources unknown:

  • “Natural Disasters: Assessing the Economic Impact,” by Ralph D. Intagliata and J. Daniel Payton

    “For business, Hugo was feast or famine” by Jim Parker, The Post and Courier (September 21, 1994).

    “The Economic Impact of Hurricane Hugo on the Charleston Trident Area Economy,”  by subcommittee of Mayor’s Recovery Task Force, Charleston, SC, (1989).
    Email from Mary Graham, Charleston Chamber of Commerce (January 11, 2007).

Clemson University, Department of Civil Engineering, Hurricane Hugo 10th Anniversary: What Homeowners Can Do To Make Their Homes Stronger Against High Winds” (July 17, 2006).

Healing Through Remembering, “The Healing Through Remembering Report,” Belfast, Ireland (June 2002).

Los Angeles Housing Department, “Rebuilding Communities after the 1994 Northridge Earthquake: Two Year Recovery Report” (January 17, 1996).

Louisiana State University and Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, “Building Your Louisiana House: Homeowners’ Guide to Shaping the Future for Louisiana Living” (2006)

Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, “Principles and Preliminary Blueprint for the Future of Lower Manhattan” (2002).

Mercatus Center, Global Prosperity Initiative Working Paper 70, “After the Storm: Social Capital Regrouping in the Wake of Hurricane Katrina,” Chamlee-Wright, Emily  (August 23, 2006),cfilter.0/pub_detail.asp

Municipal Art Society of New York, “Imagine NY: The People’s Visions,” (June 10, 2002).

Mississippi Office of Recovery and Renewal
“The Katrina Cottage Story,” by Ben Brown, August 23, 2006
“Mississippi Alternative Housing Program”
“Governor Barbour Announces 2,000 Families are Living in Mississippi Cottages,”  March 25, 2008,
“Governor Barbour Announces Additional $112 Million for Small Rental Housing Recovery,”  January 24, 2008, 
“Governor Barbour: Additional $100 Million Allocated for Workforce Housing,” January 22, 2008,

National Center for Critical Incident Analysis, “Comments on London Bombings” (undated)

Oklahoma City National Memorial, A Network of Hope – A Resource to Help, Collective Reflection, Oklahoma City (April 2006)

Terrorism and Disaster Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

“Building Community Resilience for Children and Families” 2007

“Psychological First Aid: Field Operations Guide” 2006.  This is available in hard copy format or in a digital format.

“Students & Trauma” 2007.  Available in digital format.

The Civic Alliance To Rebuild Downtown New York, “Listening to the City: Report of Proceedings” (February 7, 2002).

U.S. Census Reports 
This provides community profiles based on information gained at the last census

Unified New Orleans Plan, draft (January 20, 2007).

University of California, Berkeley, Department of History, Bradford, Hunt D. review of Disaster Hits Home: New Policy for Urban Housing Recovery, by Comerio, Mary C. (June, 1999).

Van Rysselberge, Charles H., Presentation made to Rotary Club of Charleston (April 19, 2005) and to Homeland Security Innovation Conference (December 2, 2005).

  • Charles Van Rysselberge was CEO of the Greater Oklahoma City Chamber of Commerce in 1995 and currently serves as CEO of the Charleston Metro Chamber Of Commerce in South Carolina.

Weeks, Gary, “Hurricane Katrina Evacuation: The Camp Gruber Experience,” (2005).


“Managing Traumatic Stress: Tips for Recovering from Disasters and Other Traumatic Events,” American Psychological Association (undated).

“Covering Trauma and Disaster: Impact upon the Journalist,” Dart Center for Journalism & Trauma (October 2005). 

  • Researchers are only beginning to examine how covering disaster and human suffering affects journalists. This article explores what has been learned to date in this area.

“Effects of Coverage on the Public: Connections between media exposure and trauma-related symptoms,” Dart Center for Journalism & Trauma (December 2005).

  • Does watching trauma-related news induce or worsen psychological reactions in some people?  This article explores what journalists need to know about the evidence regarding the impact of trauma-related news coverage.

Alpert, Judie, “I Know an Old Lady Who Swallowed a Fly,” Trauma Psychology, American Psychological Association, Newsletter, winter 2007, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 1-5

  • Dr. Judie Alpert is Professor of Applied Psychology at New York University.  She is Co-Director of the School Psychology Programs as well as the Co-Director of the Trauma and Violence Transdisciplinary Studies Program.  She is a faculty member and supervisor at New York University’s Postdoctoral Program in Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis.

Calame, Jon, “Post-war Reconstruction: Concerns, Models and Approaches,” Center for Macro Projects and Diplomacy Working Paper Series, Minerva Partners, New York, Vol. 6 (Spring 2005).

  • Although Jon Calame, in his 2005 article, “Post-war Reconstruction: Concerns, Models and Approaches,” wrote in response to the difficulties in the wake of military or para-military conflict, he makes the point that these same concerns are pertinent in the wake of any disaster.  He quotes Frederick Cuny’s definition that disaster is based on the human consequences, not on the phenomenon that causes it.  And then recognizes as his working definition that disaster is a series of widening rings of social disruption, regardless of whether it results from natural or man-made causes. (Calame, 7)

    “Traditionally, the scene of a wreck is treated as an emergency and the most urgent symptoms are quickly addressed by a familiar international consortium of government agencies, aid organizations and others.  Plans for recovery and rebuilding are quickly drafted and implemented.  Conventional wisdom asserts that stepping back to study the traditional social needs and expectations of a beleaguered community is a luxury that cannot be afforded while basic survival is not yet assured.  Even when traditional or emblematic built environments are used as targets during those destructive episodes, the built environmental profession rarely presents itself as a potential partner for these reconstruction programs.  The field tends to remain aloof, waiting to offer expert assistance after stable resolutions have been achieved and other more “basic” forms of assistance have been delivered.  In most cases, this sluggishness costs architects, urban planners, and conservators opportunities to make creative and serious contributions.  As a result, valuable expertise is subtracted from the social development process.” (Calame, 6)

    (Note:  it is important not to view this quote out of context.  Calame is not implying that the municipal expertise, already on staff, should be by-passed.  He is suggesting that local expertise should be brought to the table before external expertise is sought.) The purpose of this paper prompts debate and illuminates avenues for future research in constructive critique, recognition of avoidable mistakes and discussion on viability of reconstruction projects.

Call, John A. and Pfefferbaum, Betty, “Lessons from the First Two Years of Project Heartland, Oklahoma’s Mental Health Response to the 1995 Bombing,” Psychiatric Services, Vol. 50, No. 7, pp. 953-955 (July 1999).

Capital One, Press Release, “Economic Recovery Along the Gulf Coast Remains Mixed,” (2/14/2007).
This article is a summation of the report by Dr. Loren C. Scott (Professor emeritus, Louisiana State University), “Advancing in the Aftermath: Tracking the Recovery from Katrina and Rita,” a study sponsored by Capital One, N.A.

Hiroshima Peace Memorial.

Iowa Homeland Security & Emergency Management, “Iowa Disaster Human Resource Council,” (October 4, 2006).

International Committee of the Red Cross, “Hurricane Katrina: putting people back in touch,” (09/22/2005).

Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, “Principles and Preliminary Blueprint, plus LMDC Principles for Action and Preliminary Blueprint for Renewal,” available in OCNM Archives

Miller, Sam (Executive Vice President, Florida Insurance Council Florida Insurance Council), “Hot Topics: Insurance Rates 101,” (undated).

National Trust for Historic Preservation, “One Year Later: Life in New Orleans’ Historic Neighborhoods: An Update from the Preservation Resource Center and the National Trust for Historic Preservation,” (August 24, 2006).

National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster, “Organizing Protocols for Community Disaster Recovery Mechanisms,” (undated).

NeighborWorks America,

Philips, Peter, “Lessons for Post-Katrina Reconstruction: A High-road vs. Low-road Recovery,” Economic Policy Institute, Briefing Paper (undated).

Pipa, Tony, “Weathering the Storm: The Role of Local Nonprofits in the Hurricane Katrina Relief Effort,” The Aspen Institute, Working Paper Series: Nonprofit Sector Research Fund, (2006).

St. Paul’s Chapel, Parish of Trinity Church, Bulletin (undated). (Copy in Oklahoma City National Memorial Archives)

Wal-Mart Facts, “Wal-Mart and Sam’s Club’s Response to Hurricane Disaster Continues,” online, last updated July 14, 2006,

Wipperman, Wendy and Fraser, Alexander M., “Katrina’s Anniversary Finds Some Local Louisiana Governments Benefiting While Others Are Picking Up the Pieces,” Standard & Poor’s, (August 29, 2006).

Yodor, Douglas, Dr. (Assistant Director of Dade County’s Department of Environmental Resources Management), “Jordan Commons, Dade County, Florida,” Smart Communities Network, (undated).

  • Jordan Commons is a cooperative effort of the Metro Date Department of Environmental Resources Management (DERM) and Homestead Habitat for Humanity, an affiliate of Habitat for Humanity International located in Homestead,  Florida.  The project is designed to build 200 homes for low income persons impacted by Hurricane Andrew with a goal of providing affordable, quality housing and to demonstrate the application of energy-efficient technologies and their corresponding energy and financial savings.


The New York Times, “Critics Cite Red Tape in Rebuilding of Louisiana,” by Leslie Eaton (11/06/2007).

The Times Picayune, “Carving a Better City,” by Jed Horne (regarding rebuilding of Kobe, Japan) (11/13/2005).

The Times Picayune, “Rising from Rubble,” by James Varney (regarding rebuilding of Homestead, FL) (12/09/2005).

The Times Picayune, “Rising from the Tide,” by Gordon Russell (regarding rebuilding of Grand Forks, ND) (12/11/2005).

The Times Picayune, “A Sister City Flourishes,” by Elizabeth Mullener (regarding rebuilding of Charleston, SC) (12/14/2005).

The Times Picayune, “House Prototype Debuts” (10/17/2006).

The Times Picayune, “Tree Stands May be Sign of Recovery,” by Katy Reckdahl (12/23/2006).

The Times Picayune, “Nagin’s pleas for aid may backfire: FEMA, city haggle over responsibility,” by Krupa, Michelle and Russell, Gordon (12/26/2006).

The Washington Post, “Capital One, Hibernia Reduce Merger Price,” by Terence O’Hara (9/8/2005).


Danieli, Yael; Brom, Danny; Sills, Joe, eds, The Trauma of Terrorism: Sharing Knowledge and Shared Care: An International Handbook (Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press, Inc., 2005).

Daniels, Ronald J., Kettl, Donals F., & Kunreuther, Howard, eds., On Risk and Disaster: Lessons from Hurricane Katrina (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006).

Horne, Jed, Breach of Faith: Hurricane Katrina and the Near Death of a Great American City (New York: Random House, 2006)

Linenthal, Edward T., The Unfinished Bombing: Oklahoma City in American Memory (New York: Oxford Press)

MIPT, Oklahoma City: 7 Years Later: Lessons for Other Communities (Oklahoma City, 2002)

Mitroff, Ian I., Why Some Companies Emerge Stronger and Better from a Crisis: 7 Essential Lessons for Surviving Disaster (New York: AMACOM, a division of American Management Association, 2005).

Interviews and Conferences 

A Network of Hope – A Resource to Help, Collective Reflection, Oklahoma City (April 2006).

A Network of Hope – A Resource to Help, Collective Reflection, Oklahoma City National Memorial & Museum (April 2007).

Brookings Institution, Metropolitan Policy Program, Urban Market Initiative, “The Credit and Insurance Consequences of Natural and Man-made Catastrophes,” Washington, D.C. (September 7, 2006). (Participants: Dan Meder, Experian Business Information Solutions; Michael Turner, Information Policy Institute; Chet Wiermanski, TransUnion; Alex Frasier, Standard & Poor’s; Eugene Gurenko, World Bank)

Congress II, New Orleans (December 2, 2006).

Congress III, New Orleans (January 20, 2007).

Koon, Bryan, Rogers, Arkansas (April 27, 2007).

Harmon, Kathy, Greensburg, Kansas (November 8, 2007) Kathy Harmon is Site Project Director for Kansas Assisting Recovery Efforts (KARE), a grant funded crisis counseling project serving the counties of Kiowa, Edwards, Comanche, Pratt and Stafford in Kansas, 2007.

LeBoeuf, Carla, Dulac, Louisiana (October 25, 2006). Home flooded by Hurricane Rita, October 2005.

Oklahoma City National Memorial & Museum, National Media Symposium with Giuliani, Rudy and Norick, Ron (April 19, 2007).

Tatum, J. W., Holy Cross Neighborhood Association, Lower 9th Ward, New Orleans (October 24, 2006). Home flooded by Hurricane Katrina, August 2005.

« Previous Section: Preparedness Back to Background » 


620 N. Harvey, Oklahoma City  |  405.235.3313 888.542.HOPE
©2011 Oklahoma City National Memorial